Refresher course 3A
NORM metrology and sampling
Rafael García-Tenorio (Spanish Accelerator Centre –CNA-, Spain) (Organised in cooperation with ENA)
Learning objectives of the refresher course:
The main learning objectives of the course are.
- To highlight the importance of the application of an appropriate sampling program as a previous and essential step before the application of techniques and instrumentation for NORM characterization.
- To remark that the selection of the experimental techniques to be applied could be clearly dependent of the objectives pursued and the radionuclides involved in the analysis.
- To evidence the need to perform laboratory determinations, using alternative techniques to gamma-ray spectrometry, when is imperative the characterization of alpha and beta emitters in the NORM material under analysis.
After the course, the participants should have clearly in mind that in the characterisation of NORM materials a great variety of techniques could be used, The mission of the course will be covered if the participants finish with a clear idea how to sample and which techniques should be applied in each case in the characterization of NORM materials. In particular, they should be aware that the characterization techniques to be applied will be clearly dependent of the objective pursued, and that these characterizations should be performed in some cases by specialized laboratories.
The main objective of the course is to provide to the participants with an overview of the applicability of instruments and methods for the radiological characterization of NORM materials, and to highlight the importance of the application of a well-defined sampling program in order to obtain representative results.
With this end, the refresher course will be divided in three sections dealing with:
- Sampling: Basic Concepts. Probabilistic and Judgement Sampling methods applied to NORM.
- Hand-held and field equipment’s to perform the characterization of NORM materials; accuracies reached and information gained.
- Laboratory techniques for characterization of NORM samples. Determination of beta and alpha emitters in NORM material.
List of recommended (pre)reading literature:
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry, Safety Reports Series No. 34, Vienna (2003)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Assessing the need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials, IAEA Safety Reports No 49, Vienna (2005)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Zircon and Zirconia Industries, Safety Reports Series No. 51, IAEA, Vienna (2007)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Production of Rare Earths from Thorium Containing Minerals, Safety Report Series No. 68 (SRS-68), Vienna (2011)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Titanium Dioxide and Related Industries, Safety Report Series No. 76 (SRS-76), Vienna (2012)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Management of NORM Residues, TECDOC No. 1712, Vienna (2013)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Soil sampling for environmental contaminants, IAEA-TECDOC-Series 1415, Vienna (2004)